ground penetrating radar
GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) detection is a non-destructive method of geophysical research that produces a continuous cross-sectional profile of soil subsurface features without interfering with its structure. GPR profiles are used to locate soil anomalies and assess their depth. Anomalies of underground structures are responsible for the objects located in them with different, relative to the surrounding soil, electrical properties.
The principle of the GPR operation is to send high-frequency electromagnetic (microwave) pulses deep into the scanned object via a transducer (also known as an antenna). The transmitted energy is reflected from the objects inside or from the distinct jumps in the physical characteristics of the ground. The antenna then receives and records the reflected waves, based on which it creates the so-called GPR profile.
This method can be used to find elements such as fragments of old buildings, voids, pipes, cables, leaks, etc. Depending on the equipment used and the type of substrate, depths range from several cms to even 5m, but the resolution decreases with increasing wavelength and depth.
advantages of GPR detection
GPR, unlike other localization techniques, allows the detection of non-metallic elements, i.e. plastic, concrete, ceramic, optical fibres, voids and other objects.
GPR surveys will help confirm the location of underground public utilities and help in planning works, minimizing the risk of damage and disruption of public infrastructure.
GPR measurement techniques
2d detection (line-marking)
2D (line-marking) detection consists in interpreting data in the field in real-time and marking the findings on the scanning surface. This method is used primarily when searching for utilities, locating water-supply networks, live cables, and determining safe locations for drilling.
Localized points can be measured with geodetic instruments and applied detection results to the map.
Please note that real-time scanning has some limitations. With the increase in the number of objects found, and the complexity of their shapes, the difficulty in error-free interpretation of results and classification of individual readings into appropriate objects increases.
Line-marking is a method less time-consuming than detection in a mesh and is used in most cases to detect specific, pre-determined objects.
3d detection (GRID)
3D detection allows you to generate:
- 3D CAD models in .dxf, .obj, .txt, .3ds formats.
- soil cross-sections (so-called time slices) in .bmp, jpg, .txt, .geotiff, .kml, .kmz formats