photogrammetry | inspections

Photogrammetry| Drones in geodesy

Photogrammetric measurements using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, drone) involve obtaining image data attached to the drone with an RGB camera. The measured object is photographed several times at different angles and each of the photos taken in this way is positioned in space by giving the camera centre coordinates. To increase the accuracy of determining the position of the camera centres, the points measured previously in the field coordinate system are marked in the pictures.

Based on this data, photogrammetry software can create geo-referenced mosaics, elevation models, or 3D models of the design area. These maps can also be used to extract information, such as distance measurements or volumetric measurements.

Unlike manned aircraft, drones can fly at much lower altitudes, making high-resolution and accuracy data generation much faster, cheaper, and independent of atmospheric conditions such as cloud cover.

With the help of drones, you can generate a high-resolution orthophoto map and detailed 3D models of areas for which the data available is of low quality, are out of date, and even do not exist. Drones enable fast generation of maps with high accuracy even for areas with difficult access or complex structure. They are a perfect complement to maps for design purposes and, unlike them, they are always a full, real and current source of spatial information on the raid area.

After performing more complicated and detailed processing of image data obtained from the drone, we can generate a bullet cloud, and based on it: detailed terrain models, contour maps, 3D models of buildings, or high-resolution orthoimages of their facades

the benefits of photogrammetric solutions

cost reduction
shortening time

Acquiring spatial data using a drone is up to five times faster than classic methods and involves fewer human resources, which in practice translates into a significant reduction in execution time and measurement costs.


Classic methods allow you to measure several hundred points per hour. During the photogrammetric raid, in a few minutes, we collect data from several hundred thousand points, and the error of the location of the point resulting from the standard development is <2cm(2D)  and   <5cm(1D)

mapping of
inaccessible areas

You are no longer limited by unreachable areas, dangerous steep slopes or difficult terrain unsuitable for traditional measuring tools.
You don’t have to close highways or railways. Data collection without organizational restrictions.

standard photogrammetric products

orthomosaic | ortophotomap

The orthophoto map is a raster, fully cartometric (in 2D space) image in the middle projection in a user-defined coordinate system. Each pixel of the image has X and Y coordinates. Thanks to the centimetre accuracy of fitting on its basis, you can successfully make situational measurements.

Orthophoto map due to the technology of its implementation and lack of generalization, unlike traditional maps, is easy to interpret and comprehensive source of spatial information.

The cyclic execution of the orthophoto map allows for the imaging of changes taking place in the field – e.g. monitoring of investment progress.

Formats: geoTIFF (.tiff), .jpg, .png, Google tiles (.kml, .html)

point cloud

The point cloud is the basic, output product of photogrammetric studies. It is a multi-million set of points with specific spatial coordinates (X, Y, Z) constituting the geometric representation of an object. It provides the ability to perform very accurate measurements of distance (inclined and horizontal), area and volume.

Point cloud density allows objects to be represented almost continuously without the distortions present in TIN or GRID models.

Formats: .las, .laz, .ply, .xyzs

digital elevation model (DEM)

The numerical (digital) elevation model (DEM) is a three-dimensional representation of the topography of the area constructed in the form of a regular grid of squares – GRID. Each DEM element is described by two flat coordinates (X, Y) and a height coordinate – Z.

The use of DEM allows for extremely fast and efficient calculations to be carried out with a high accuracy that cannot be achieved with classic measurements. The density of the model can be up to 100 points per square meter, reproducing the smallest details of the topography of the terrain.

Formats: GeoTiff (.tif), .xyz, .asc, .dxf, .xml

Digital terrain model (DTM)

The digital terrain model (DTM) is a filtered elevation model. During the filtration process, elements that do not belong to the broadly understood area of ​​the area were removed, such as buildings, trees or elements of street furniture. In their place, depending on the purpose for which the model will be used, an appropriate interpolation algorithm was used.

The DTM model is ideal for cyclical volume measurements of landfills, excavations or the progress of earthworks during the implementation of the investment.

Formats: GeoTiff (.tif), .xyz, .asc, .xml

3d mesh model (with texture)

The irregular triangle mesh (TIN) model is a 3D vector model created by triangulating filtered elements of a point cloud. Like the GRID model, it is a three-dimensional representation of the topography of the area, but it is characterized by a much greater possibility of modifying its structure in CAD programs.

In addition to the obvious applications associated with carrying out a variety of calculations based on it, it can be an excellent material for visual inspection of an object after applying a high-resolution texture on its surface.

Formats: .ply, .fbx, .dxf, .obj, .pdf

contour model

Depending on the clients’ needs, we also make models represented in a non-standard way. The contour model is an example of such a solution. It consists of polylines created by cutting the model at a given interval.

This is the lightest file possible representing the terrain. It can be used in both GIS and CAD software.

Formats: .shp, .dxf, .pdf

examples of photogrammetry applications

  • the base for situational and altitude maps
  • monitoring fuel, water and energy networks
  • measurements of the volume of excavations, heaps, waste dumps, landfills
  • inventory of earthworks, construction sites
  • volume measurements
  • monitoring the progress of construction works
  • inspections of hard-to-reach engineering objects
  • maging environmental degradation
  • inspection of shorelines of watercourses and water reservoirs
  • range assessment and damage imaging in agriculture and forestry
  • planning and analysis based on orthophotos for administrative units
  • creating documentation of monuments
  • creating 2D and 3D documentation for urban and architectural planning or telecommunications
  • collision detection (matching designed elements to existing structures)
  • lighting level test

completed projects

Drone photo / video inspections

By attaching the DJI Zenmuse Z30 specialized camera, which is equipped with optics that allow you to take pictures and record videos with a maximum 180x zoom, we can capture the most inaccessible objects.

Conducting inspections using a drone gives our clients several measurable benefits. Customers save time and money and bear less risk. Compared to standard methods, the technical review of the drone takes much less time. This applies to all its stages. Both planning and carrying out inspections and developing photographic and film documentation. In the case of unmanned inspections, cost reduction is not only due to time savings. Lower expenses also result from the fact that you can opt-out of the use of specialized equipment, scaffolding or elevators. The use of a drone also limits employee involvement.